Much like research with African Americans along with other cultural minority teams (Kessler, Mickelson, & Williams, 1999), scientists have described antigay physical violence and discrimination as core stressors impacting homosexual and lesbian populations (Garnets et al., 1990; Herek & Berrill, 1992; Herek, Gillis, & Cogan, 1999; Kertzner, 1999). Antigay prejudice was perpetrated throughout history: Institutionalized types of prejudice, discrimination, and physical physical violence have actually ranged from Nazi extermination of homosexuals to enforcement of sodomy laws and regulations punishable by imprisonment, castration, torture, and death (Adam, 1987). Because of the development of the homosexual community, as LGB people became more noticeable and much more easily recognizable by possible perpetrators, they increasingly became goals of antigay physical violence and discrimination (Badgett, 1995; Herek & Berrill, 1992; Human Rights Watch, 2001; Safe Schools Coalition of Washington, 1999). In 2001, Amnesty Global stated that lesbian, homosexual, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) individuals are susceptible to widespread individual liberties abuses, torture, and ill therapy, including lack of dignity to attack and murder.
a number of these abuses are carried out with impunity and sanctioned by governments and communities through formal mechanisms such as for instance discriminatory regulations and informal mechanisms, including prejudice and spiritual traditions (Amnesty Global, 2001).
Studies have actually documented that lesbians and gay guys are disproportionately subjected to prejudice occasions, including discrimination and physical violence. As an example, in a likelihood research of U.S. adults, LGB everyone was two times as likely as heterosexual visitors to have observed life occasion pertaining to prejudice, such as for instance being fired from a work (Mays & Cochran, 2001). (mehr …)